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before
30-05-2009, 10:40 AM
Finally, I've decided not to go for an autocascade but a 4-stager unit.

I've already prepared drawnings with expected size for pipes, item locations, etc.

Here's the check list. I'm now waiting for the needed parts.

http://img188.imageshack.us/img188/8551/cascade4.png


Steps


Empirical agencement of parts following drawing expectations
Inter-parts piping
Case building (as expected or revised thanks to step 1)
Paintings (both case and compressors)
Modding TXVs (one for R1150 and one for R14)
Installation of parts into the case + brazing of prepared pipes
Empirical realization of a bench station on top of the case + evaporators piping
Finishing insulation
Vaccuming all stages + filling them with R290
Vaccuming again
Charging and testing

before
30-05-2009, 10:41 AM
Started the work about a week ago.

I'm currently trying to put parts as in the drawings to be sure everything fit prior to work on the case.

http://img38.imageshack.us/img38/947/img8500n.jpg

http://img38.imageshack.us/img38/810/img8504.jpg

http://img38.imageshack.us/img38/9951/img8509.jpg

http://img38.imageshack.us/img38/570/img8519.jpg

I'll have to paint the compressors as soon as possible because they are really dirty. :shock:

before
30-05-2009, 10:42 AM
Yesterday's work.

http://img13.imageshack.us/img13/110/img8534d.jpg

http://img13.imageshack.us/img13/9494/img8541e.jpg

Today's work.

http://img23.imageshack.us/img23/9383/img8546.jpg

R50 evap in front of R14 evap (to be finished)

Captube won't act as an expansion metric... but as a hand controlled bypass to put some hot refrigerant into the evap if needed to fight CPU cold-bug.

http://img23.imageshack.us/img23/8824/img8552x.jpg

HX pressure testing.

http://img23.imageshack.us/img23/8458/img8543c.jpg

http://img23.imageshack.us/img23/1156/img8544p.jpg

Yuri B.
30-05-2009, 04:39 PM
Hello. May not be the condenser to be a little undersized when all stages engage?

before
30-05-2009, 05:17 PM
Well I don't think so. This is a 5.2kW; looks huge to me (49cm*38cm*26cm)

Yuri B.
30-05-2009, 05:27 PM
Fine, very meticulous work, indeed. What is the full compressors' capacity?

before
30-05-2009, 05:54 PM
Thanks ;)

Do you mean cooling capacity wattage, btu/hr, or motor input wattage?

Yuri B.
30-05-2009, 06:19 PM
I am an electrician working in HVAC for several years and my very very rough correlation is 1 kWe, 3 kW cool, 9 000 BTU.

Yuri B.
30-05-2009, 09:12 PM
3 kW caloric equals, more precisely, not 9000 Btu/h but 10242.
Your compressors are 46000 Btu, that is 13,5 kW. Is not that much for 5,2kW condenser (at full load)?

before
31-05-2009, 01:12 PM
Ok I see. :)

Well, as far as I understand the condenser will be loaded by compressor motor input wattage, i.e. 4.4kW here (752+923+923+1800). I could be wrong, you know, because I'm not a professional, just an amateur. :)

Furthermore, heat load produced by the compressors will be partly eliminated by oil separators. To my own experience a great part of it is dropped out by oil separators.

This condenser was used into a big 2-stager unit build with a 25,000btu/hr and a 22,000btu/hr compressors. :)

Peter_1
31-05-2009, 01:52 PM
You may not add all the compressors together in a cascade system. The condenser will only have to remove the heat from the highest stage, that's all.
The heat from the other stages is 'removed' with the compressor from the lower stages.
Keep up the postings, I'm interested.
Yuri B., this is indeed a very rough calculation not useful for this application. Your rough calculation is only valid for AC's - and even then - but certainly not for freezer and not talking about cascade.

Yuri B.
31-05-2009, 02:14 PM
I agree. Why there are so many solenoid valves - 6 - and will there be back valves on the discharge sides?

Yuri B.
31-05-2009, 02:33 PM
By the way, a rough calculation to go by is better than no at all. Once working along with a certified ref mechanic, we ordered by phone a compressor for an AC. Only I meant el power, he - caloric. We have long faces when arrived to pick up the order. From then I have my rough calculation.

Peter_1
31-05-2009, 02:34 PM
Befroe, Yuri has a point, I think it can run without an SV, will save you a lot of money and it doesn't serve a purpose for me .

Peter_1
31-05-2009, 02:35 PM
By the way, a rough calculation to go by is better than no at all. Once working along with a certified ref mechanic, we ordered by phone a compressor for an AC. Only I meant el power, he - caloric. We have long faces when arrived to pick up the order. From then I have my rough calculation.

But your caculations aren't valid in this case, they're too far away from the real world (more then a tenfold in fact).

Yuri B.
31-05-2009, 02:41 PM
El power of 1 kW, for instance, in this case trasfers to approx what 30 kW, or 0,3kW caloric?

before
31-05-2009, 02:59 PM
You may not add all the compressors together in a cascade system. The condenser will only have to remove the heat from the highest stage, that's all.
The heat from the other stages is 'removed' with the compressor from the lower stages.
Keep up the postings, I'm interested.
Yuri B., this is indeed a very rough calculation not useful for this application. Your rough calculation is only valid for AC's - and even then - but certainly not for freezer and not talking about cascade.

Thank you. :)


I agree. Why there are so many solenoid valves - 6 - and will there be back valves on the discharge sides?

In fact, each stage (lowest one excepted) will have 2 different expansion ways: one to an inter-stage HX, and another to a CPU evaporator.

On the line after the liquid reciever I'm considering brazing 2 solenoids both wired to the same switch so that by choosing a switch position, it'll open a way while closing the other. If for instance I need -50C for CPU cooling, then I expect being able thanks to the frist stage solenoids to use only the first compressor without even turning on the lower ones. But if I need -100C, then I'll set the first stage evaporation to the inter-stage HX and the second stage evaporation to its own CPU cooler. Hopefully this unit will be all at once a single stager, 2-stager, 3-stager and even a 4-stager... depending on the need.

Only the lowest stage, R50, won't use solenoid valves. It'll have a single expansion way to a CPU evaporator.

I'm not considering using back valves so far. Well at least if I correctly understand. Anyway, I'm gonna use bypass hand valve at each stage.

before
03-06-2009, 04:19 PM
Today I've started working on the box for the three HX. It misses the third one; the others have been fully tested and proved to be leak free.

http://img2.imageshack.us/img2/5899/img8561.jpg

Yuri B.
03-06-2009, 07:45 PM
Hello. I am not a ref engineer by trade to evaluate rightfully, but I admire the creativity of people like you.
Do the temperatures on this device will reach as low as - 100 C?

before
03-06-2009, 08:57 PM
Thanks for the kind words. :)

Well, to my experience I think first stage will allow -40C to -60C, second one -90C to -115C, thrid one -120C to -135C.

Fourth one is a mystery because I've never used R50 as a fourth stage refrigerant before. It could do -160C... but -145C / -150C would be nice.

Yuri B.
04-06-2009, 06:29 AM
Then your design must be intended for some really scientific experiments.

before
04-06-2009, 12:47 PM
Could be. I've to think about evaporator adapters for other needs such laser cooling.

I've started positioning parts of the box second level.

http://img198.imageshack.us/img198/1504/img8566.jpg

http://img198.imageshack.us/img198/3305/img8569.jpg

I'm gonna have to prepare a second insulated box for three liquid recievers.

Dualist
18-06-2009, 08:10 PM
I'm liking the look of this Xavier, loved your build post on 'Grosse Bertha' on XS.
I have similar compressors to these, well same as your first stage and larger than your other stages and have been thinking about building a quad stage cascade for a while.
Watching with interest. :)

before
21-06-2009, 11:09 AM
Thanks for the kind words mate ;)

I've other larger compressors as well, but I'm a bit afraid of the electricity bill to be honest... :D That's why I've decided to go for moderately powerful rotaries.

Good luck if you start building a 4 stager unit ;)

r1ch
08-09-2009, 12:16 AM
Hey before, I'm from BenchTec the same as Dualist - this looks like a very exciting build. :) Will be watching this one with interest.

I don't look forward to your electricity bill though :eek:

before
10-09-2009, 01:14 PM
Won't be more expensive than my past units. This one uses moderately big compressors. ;)

Well, the garage was way too hot during the past 2 months. I didn't work on the unit.
Time has come to continue working.
http://img171.imageshack.us/img171/5210/img8693.jpg
http://img193.imageshack.us/img193/3327/img8696t.jpg
http://img29.imageshack.us/img29/3755/img8707d.jpg

before
14-09-2009, 04:55 PM
A bit more.

http://img16.imageshack.us/img16/3904/img8709s.jpg

http://img14.imageshack.us/img14/8558/img8720.jpg

http://img171.imageshack.us/img171/1764/img8727.jpg

http://img14.imageshack.us/img14/1174/img8729d.jpg

http://img11.imageshack.us/img11/5016/img8732e.jpg

http://img171.imageshack.us/img171/6406/img8734.jpg

http://img14.imageshack.us/img14/3641/img8738q.jpg

http://img11.imageshack.us/img11/8187/img8741z.jpg

http://img171.imageshack.us/img171/4686/img8745j.jpg

before
16-09-2009, 03:17 PM
http://img43.imageshack.us/img43/3669/img8752c.jpg

http://img32.imageshack.us/img32/1959/img8758c.jpg

http://img25.imageshack.us/img25/6980/img8767f.jpg

http://img2.imageshack.us/img2/7241/img8772y.jpg

http://img21.imageshack.us/img21/9108/img8774x.jpg

http://img87.imageshack.us/img87/3186/img8779h.jpg

Foamy
28-09-2009, 11:02 AM
Those aluminum tubes are those dampers? Against vibration?

Monstreous cascade :cool:

before
28-09-2009, 11:32 PM
Thanks dude :) Yes you're right.

before
01-10-2009, 04:40 PM
A bit more. :)

http://img89.imageshack.us/img89/3143/img8785o.jpg

http://img338.imageshack.us/img338/2803/img8796z.jpg

http://img89.imageshack.us/img89/7103/img8798h.jpg

http://img89.imageshack.us/img89/301/img8800.jpg

http://img28.imageshack.us/img28/664/img8807.jpg

http://img246.imageshack.us/img246/6144/img8808e.jpg

http://img515.imageshack.us/img515/9131/img8812h.jpg

http://img246.imageshack.us/img246/82/img8813l.jpg

pina
01-10-2009, 04:49 PM
Please Im from Brazil. I started one development cascade 2 stage, R 404 #1 st R744 #2 st. But I have some doubt. Can I used compressor unit Bitzer IV for to do it?

before
04-10-2009, 11:29 PM
Hi; I'd say yes; but it depends on your needs I think. :)

before
05-10-2009, 06:50 PM
A bit more.

http://img260.imageshack.us/img260/7349/img8821.jpg

http://img202.imageshack.us/img202/8708/img8826.jpg

http://img202.imageshack.us/img202/8981/img8832.jpg

http://img383.imageshack.us/img383/5441/img8836.jpg

http://img245.imageshack.us/img245/7963/img8842y.jpg

http://img410.imageshack.us/img410/2170/img8845i.jpg

before
06-10-2009, 04:46 PM
I've worked a bit on suc sides from the HX today.

http://img514.imageshack.us/img514/7159/img8847.jpg

http://img194.imageshack.us/img194/3528/img8848o.jpg

http://img514.imageshack.us/img514/4044/img8851j.jpg

tanguintel
09-10-2009, 01:41 PM
perfect =)

cadillackid
28-10-2009, 05:14 PM
im intruiged with this...

iver always wanted to ask about extreme O'clocking.. does your computer really run so much faster and do things faster or is it just the fun of building a kick-butt system with awesome cooling and such that people do it?

im one to talk as my whole house is an HVAC marvel.. ive never thought about refrigerating my CPU's though...
-Christopher

Pyr0Beast
29-10-2009, 04:13 AM
Usually it is just for the purpose of breaking (more) records :)

before
04-11-2009, 06:15 PM
just having fun :)

Well, I've been doing couple of stuff since last update.

http://img2.imageshack.us/img2/3986/img9018b.jpg

http://img689.imageshack.us/img689/2356/img9022b.jpg

http://img148.imageshack.us/img148/6161/img9023b.jpg

http://img503.imageshack.us/img503/4458/img9025b.jpg

http://img503.imageshack.us/img503/1315/img9028b.jpg

http://img405.imageshack.us/img405/2486/img9031b.jpg

before
09-11-2009, 05:28 PM
http://img255.imageshack.us/img255/2450/img9034.jpg

http://img20.imageshack.us/img20/8341/img9035k.jpg

http://img20.imageshack.us/img20/7691/img9043b.jpg

http://img682.imageshack.us/img682/8013/img9048h.jpg

http://img691.imageshack.us/img691/1545/img9050.jpg

http://img691.imageshack.us/img691/1654/img9051o.jpg

cadillackid
09-11-2009, 10:32 PM
what do you figure the total BTU of heat moved wit hthe system?

what will the temperature be at the CPU chip?
-Christopher

before
13-12-2009, 06:44 PM
Both questions are pretty difficult to answer cause it'll depend on the number of stage(s) running at once, and how high the CPU is overclocked.

Tuning has started.

- 1st stage = HSP @ ~ 10bars & TEV @ -67C

http://img268.imageshack.us/img268/8578/img9085d.jpg

- 2nd stage = HSP @ ~ 10.5bars & modded TEV (R1150) @ -111C

http://img683.imageshack.us/img683/9606/img9086.jpg

- 3rd stage = HSP @ ~ 7bars & CPEV (wide open) @ -112C

http://img51.imageshack.us/img51/8414/img9087.jpg

Just for fun. 1st stage is way too cold this way. :p Anyway, I'm very surprised how well it actually holds to load of the running lower stages even with such a pressure.
With the CPEV opened like this, the 3rd stage pulls down amazingly fast!!

http://img191.imageshack.us/img191/5452/img9081.jpg

DEVIL
15-12-2009, 11:04 PM
Nice Job

You worked some time on it and wasted some amount of money, hope your wife isn't upset :))

kip us posted

Peter_1
16-12-2009, 03:11 PM
Wasted?
Gained a lot of experience and mostly, this cost some money, time and effort.

But I don't see this as a waste at all.

It's certainly not a waste of time nor money for me.

before
16-12-2009, 03:19 PM
I've tried to mostly used "reused" parts so that the one time investment wasn't too big.

I've played a bit with superheats to get these. (3 stages running)

1st TEV @ -55.2C

http://img13.imageshack.us/img13/5862/img9124m.jpg

2nd TEV @ -101.5C

http://img705.imageshack.us/img705/6638/img9127.jpg

3rd stage CPEV @ -130.7C (crap pic sorry)

http://img697.imageshack.us/img697/8880/img9145.jpg

DEVIL
16-12-2009, 07:46 PM
Wasted?
Gained a lot of experience and mostly, this cost some money, time and effort.

But I don't see this as a waste at all.

It's certainly not a waste of time nor money for me.

Bad translation on my part
i men spent (in my lang is the same word like wasted)
And i do agree it's not wasted time or money, but the parts probably weren't for free so it depends on how cheep he got them

and as for the time and effort it's well invested

so .. don't get me wrong you get my respect for it

Edit: and if u say you got mostly reused parts then it's even better

before
26-03-2011, 06:22 PM
... It has been ages since my last update... looks like I need to finish this beast! :)

before
06-04-2011, 07:19 AM
I've repaired few small leaks; repaired the second stage TXV and now trying to get it working properly with a mixture of R23 and R1150.

Any idea on how much pressure is usually used by manufacturers in a TXV bulb?

before
07-04-2011, 06:29 PM
All good. I'm adjusting the first 3 stages by playing with TXVs.

before
10-05-2011, 08:39 PM
I've removed the 3rd stage CPU evaporator CPEV because it was leaking by the screw, and replaced it by 1.75m of .8mm captube.

Evap out = -129.3C; it looks fairly accurate.

http://img713.imageshack.us/img713/5603/img1261it.jpg

HSP: 1st stage at 10.5 bars, 2nd stage at 5 bars and 3rd stage at 13
Probes gave -50C for the 1st stage TXV and -85C for the 2nd stage TXV.

http://img594.imageshack.us/img594/3878/img1262l.jpg

I don't know why, but 3rd stage evaporator takes a very long time to go down to about -117C and then looses nearly 20C within few seconds.... I'm a bit puzzled.

Peter_1
11-05-2011, 12:17 PM
I've repaired few small leaks; repaired the second stage TXV and now trying to get it working properly with a mixture of R23 and R1150.

Any idea on how much pressure is usually used by manufacturers in a TXV bulb?
In the bulb is mostly the same refrigerant as the circuit it controls. The pressure is that pressure at the corresponding temperature.

before
12-05-2011, 05:22 AM
It makes sense. :) Interestingly, playing with the bulb pressure allows to play with refrigerant charge of the system. For example, it is possible to achieve the same evap temperature with a moderate refrigerant charge but with a high bulb pressure than with more refrigerant in the circuit but with less pressure in the bulb. I've tested this yesterday and I have been able to run a system with less static pressure.

before
15-05-2011, 09:53 AM
I've removed the 3rd stage CPU evaporator CPEV because it was leaking by the screw, and replaced it by 1.75m of .8mm captube.

Evap out = -129.3C; it looks fairly accurate.

http://img713.imageshack.us/img713/5603/img1261it.jpg

HSP: 1st stage at 10.5 bars, 2nd stage at 5 bars and 3rd stage at 13
Probes gave -50C for the 1st stage TXV and -85C for the 2nd stage TXV.

http://img594.imageshack.us/img594/3878/img1262l.jpg

I didn't know why, but 3rd stage evaporator took a very long time to go down to about -117C and then lost nearly 20C within few seconds.... I was a bit puzzled. So I've tried different captube lengths to finally switch back to a CPEV.

Unfortunately, this new CPEV puts more load on the higher stages. 2nd stage R23 is not enough now. I'm considering doing the following:

- Replacing 1st stage R507 by R410 which would be better to condensate 2nd stage R1150
- Replacing 2nd stage R23 by R1150 which is needed in order to condensate 3rd stage R14